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SyberWorks Learning and Performance Glossary


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The Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) Initiative: a collaborative effort to utilize information technologies to modernize structured learning. Its ultimate goal is to provide access to the highest quality education and training that can be tailored to individual needs and delivered cost-effectively, whenever and wherever it is required. ADL sets the standards for SCORM courses.

A-B-C Summarize: a form of review where students in a class are assigned a different letter of the alphabet. They then must select a word starting with that letter that is related to the topic being studied.

Abstracting: summarizing and converting real-world events or ideas into true models.

Accessibility: the degree to which information on the web is made available to people with disabilities. For instance, people with disabilities such as visual, hearing, motor, or cognitive have the ability to access information from the web.

Accreditation: the recognition of an institution that meets specific measures of quality after being reviewed by a standards body.

Acronym Memory Method: a technique that combines the first letter of each word into a smaller word or phrase that makes information easier to remember. For example, to help remember the colors of the rainbow, ROY G. BIV stands for Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo and Violet.

Action Projects: when ideas learned through research are tested and related through real-world situations.

Activating Prior Knowledge: a tool that helps learners connect to concepts about to be taught by using activities that relate to the current level of their knowledge. Active Learning: any method, including hands-on activities, that engages learners by matching the training to the learner's understanding, interests and developmental level.

ADA: The Americans with Disabilities Act is a U.S. law passed in 1990 that prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities. This Act gives civil rights protection to individuals with disabilities and impacts businesses and organizations as both service providers and employers.

ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation) Model: an instructional design model that represents a flexible guideline for constructing effective training support tools.

Adaptive Learning Environments Model (ALEM): a method to integrate students with special needs into the classroom through a combination of individual and whole class instruction.

Adaptive Technology: technology used to adapt a computer device or piece of software for use by a person with a disability.

ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder): a disorder in which a student may exhibit poor concentration, plus impulsivity and hyperactivity.

ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line): a type of DSL that uses the majority of the bandwidth to transmit information to the user, and a small part of the bandwidth to receive information from the user.

Adult Learning Theory: a theory pioneered by Malcolm Knowles, which describes learning motivators and how they differ in adults and children. Adults are more self-directed and autonomous in their learning, and bring more life experience to the learning process than children.

Advance Organizer: guidelines for an abstract introduction developed by David Ausubel. They were designed to activate prior knowledge and help students respond better to the training that is about to occur.

Affinity: a brainstorming approach that encourages less verbal members of a group to participate. All members of the group write responses to the problem or question on separate cards. The cards are then silently grouped by each member while the others observe. After a discussion, the agreed upon arrangement is recorded as an outline or diagram.

Affirmations: a motivation technique for students that involves boosting morale through positive comments.

AGO (Aims, Goals, Objectives): a strategy proposed by Edward de Bono to help students analyze the reasons behind their actions.

Agree/Disagree Matrix: a method for discussing and researching issues by polling students for agreement or disagreement with a statement. Their responses as a group are recorded in a matrix. Students then research the topic and record their responses. Lastly, small groups meet to discuss the results.

Agreement Circles: a tactic used to explore different opinions from students by placing them in a circle, facing toward the center. The teacher then makes a statement, and students who agree with it step toward the center of the circle.

AIAP (Alternative Interface Access Protocols): Used in assistive technology, it allows a user to get web pages in the form they choose for the device they choose. AIAP is under development by the V2 committee of the National Committee on Information Technology.

AICC: standards that apply to the development, delivery, and evaluation of training courses that are delivered via technology. The Aviation Industry CBT (computer-based training) Committee (AICC) is an international association of technology-based training professionals that develop training guidelines for the aviation industry.

Alt Text: an attribute that allows descriptive text to be inserted into HTML, to describe objects (usually images) on a web page. It also provides a text description that can be read out by a screen reader, so that a person with visual impairment can understand the nature, purpose and content of on-screen objects.

Alternative Assessments: allows teachers to evaluate their students' understanding of a specific subject, or of their overall performance. Examples include: performance assessments, journals and portfolios.

Alternative to Recitation: similar to recitation, but the questions are generated by students. Students prepare by reading, so that they can generate questions, review, quiz, and evaluate.

Amblyopia: a condition, also known as "lazy eye," that normally develops in early childhood, where a person does not fully use one eye.

Amendment: a revision or addition to an existing law.

Amplitude: the spread between the lowest and highest points in an analog wave.

Analog: a signal used for storing and transferring data that is received in the same form in which it is transmitted, although the amplitude and frequency may vary. Analog signals may be transmitted slower than digital signals, depending on the signal source and the medium through which the signal travels.

Analogies: a thinking skill that is demonstrated when a student gives examples that are similar, but not identical, to a target example.

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